What is endoscopy?
Endoscopy is a medical procedure that uses an optical system to see inside the digestive tract. It is called Panendoscopy when the upper digestive tract (esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine), and colonoscopy is studied when the large intestine is studied. The endoscope is a fiberoptic tube long and flexible, with a camera connected to a video, which lets go see inside the digestive tract.
The endoscope contains pipes inside that allow:
Injecting air or fluid to distend the gastrointestinal tract and inspect and wash the inspection area, vacuuming and take samples from the surface of the digestive tract to study, introduce a microtweezers for taking tissue samples for microscopic study, extraction foreign bodies that have accidentally ingested, polyps of the gastrointestinal mucosa, cauterize varicose veins or hemorrhagic lesions, etc.Introducir micro scissors, and other tools for interventions in the esophagus, stomach, intestine (removal of polyps, tumors, etc.) and routes bile.
As surgical technique allows to solve certain problems without opening the abdomen and digestive tract, reducing risks and complications, and allowing a much faster patient recovery.
What it indicates?
Endoscopy is indicated as adjunctive test in the visual and anatomical diagnosis process by taking tissue samples; problems of the digestive tract tumors, malformations, polyps, bleeding, gastroesophageal reflux disease, suspected gastric or duodenal ulcer, malabsorption or maldigestion of food and celiac disease otras.Este body type is known as a diagnostic endoscopy endoscopy.
In addition, performing an endoscopy allows surgery within the gastrointestinal tract, sutures, cauterize ulcers, flirt varices in the esophagus, remove bile duct stones, draining pseudocysts in pácreas etc., avoiding sometimes need for major surgical procedures and reducing complications. This type of endoscopy is known as therapeutic endoscopy.
When endoscopy is done entering the bile ducts and pancreatic ducts to do, in conjunction with X-rays in real time; to make the diagnosis and provide treatment to some diseases of the biliary tract and pancreatic ducts is known as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, or ERCP Endoscopic.
How it is performed?
In this technique, the endoscopist uses video cameras and lenses specially designed small (1.9 mm to 4 mm) and small-caliber instruments that can be introduced into the digestive tract (tweezers, scissors, handles, layettes , prostheses etc ..). In the case of Panendoscopy, the endoscope is inserted through the mouth after applying sedation and sometimes a local anesthetic in the throat, and colonoscopy is inserted through the rectum, after applying Vaseline or lubricating cream and sedation.
For performing an endoscopy, the patient must be fasting from the night before. In the event that you are taking treatment, you should ask your doctor whether to take it or interrupt (in some cases must stop taking anticoagulants, aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs). You should always inform the doctor if allergies or intolerances to drugs suffer.
To perform endoscopy, often the patient is sedated, and a local anesthetic. In some cases, general anesthesia may be necessary, depending on the state of health of the patient and the type of intervention to be performed, although most often, is that only requires local anesthesia and sedation.
The endoscope is inserted through the mouth or rectum. Takes 15 to 90 minutes of time do it, depending on which during implementation, carried out a sampling, a cauterization of a bleeding area, or removal of any calculation of the bile ducts or a mass or polyp in some Moreover the gastrointestinal tract.
What care or measures should be taken before and after its completion?
Antes de la realización de la endoscopia, el paciente debe de estar en ayunas desde la noche anterior, sin beber alcohol ni fumar. Si se va a realizar una colonoscopia, se aplicará un día previo un laxante o enema para limpiar bien el colon, y se recomienda para los días anteriores una dieta con muy bajo contenido en fibra con el fin de reducir al máximo la cantidad de heces en el intestino grueso.
La toma de cualquier medicamento debe de ser consultada con el médico. Tras la realización, y después de unas horas de vigilancia, el paciente generalmente puede desplazarse a su domicilio.
Durante los 2-3 días siguientes a la realización de la endoscopia, puede presentar molestias abdominales por la distensión intestinal que provoca la introducción de gases en la colonoscopia, escozor en la garganta en el caso de una panendoscopia, o en el recto si se ha realizado una colonoscopia.